Payet suffered hamstring injury and had to be replaced in the first half of Wednesday's Europa League final, where Marseille lost to Atletico Madrid 3-0.
"He was a serious candidate for a place in the 23 but for this kind of injury it's usually three weeks of recovery", said Deschamps.
"I consider Giroud, (Antoine) Griezmann, (Nabil) Fékir and (Kylian) Mbappé as central attackers".
The 19-year-old Kylian Mbappe, whose stunning performance over the past two seasons has drawn much attention from the world, is set to welcome his World Cup debut in Russian Federation, while Arsenal forward Alexandre Lacazette had to settle in the standby list in case of injury of 23 chosen members. The biggest surprise came with the inclusion of Sevilla's holding midfielder Steven Nzonzi, who was preferred to Paris Saint-Germain's Adrien Rabiot.
Laurent Koscielny was another French player set to miss out on World Cup following his Achilles injury.
'Just watch Mbappe's performance in this position against Russian Federation recently.
However, Manchester United forward Anthony Martial, Arsenal striker Alexadre Lacazette and Paris Saint-Germain midfielder Adrien Rabiot are all placed on standby along with eight other players.
For an exit in the playoffs of the world Cup team France, being one of the main favorites of the tournament, will compete with Australia, Peru and Denmark.