A Kremlin statement said Putin and Rouhani agreed that the Western strikes had damaged the chances of achieving a political resolution in the multi-sided, seven-year conflict that has killed at least half a million people.
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad described US -led air strikes against the country as an act of aggression during a meeting with Russian lawmakers Sunday.
The U.S. and France say they have evidence that poison gas was used in Douma, east of Damascus, killing dozens of people, and that President Bashar al-Assad's military was behind it, but they have made none of that evidence public.
She said that the USA and its allies had given diplomacy "chance after chance", but that those efforts failed because Russian Federation had continuously protected Assad. I think everyone is going to feel it at this point.
"Whether we like it or not, without Russian Federation, the political process will not succeed", Maas said.
"Everything that has strained the relationship is on Russia's side", she said, adding that the USA hopes for improved relations with Moscow, but that "we're not going to put up with bad behavior to get it". While President Donald Trump praised his military for a successful operation tweeting "Mission Accomplished", the Pentagon was quick to retort, that "this operation does not represent a change in United States policy", and that it was not an attempt to dethrone Assad or be involved in the Syrian civil war.
The US has about 2000 troops on the ground in Syria as advisers to a makeshift group of anti-Islamic State fighters known as the Syrian Democratic Forces.
She will say United Nations inspectors found Syrian president Bashar al-Assad's government responsible for four previous chemical weapons attacks and that she is confident it was "highly likely" to have been behind last week's attack in Douma, which killed up to 75 people.
General Joseph Dunford, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said that naval and air forces struck three primary targets, including a chemical weapons research facility outside Damascus and a weapons storage area near Homs. "Mission Accomplished!" he declared.
The military strikes in Syria Friday night were carried out by the U.S., France and Britain.
But the USA envoy to the global watchdog said on Monday Russia may have tampered with the site of the incident on April 7 in Douma outside of Damascus.
The assault was carefully limited to minimise civilian casualties and avoid direct conflict with Russian Federation in Syria, but confusion arose over the extent to which Washington warned Moscow in advance.
Around 30 missiles were fired in the attack, and a third of them were shot down, the official said.
Russian Federation has military forces, including air defences, in several areas of Syria to support Mr Assad in his long war against anti-government rebels.
Russian Federation condemned the strikes and warned of "consequences".
On Sunday, Maas said Germany would work with the US, UK and France to discuss next steps following Saturday's airstrikes against chemical weapons facilities in Syria. The joint body was created in 2015 and found the Syrian government responsible for using sarin gas a year ago in Khan Shaykhoun, a rebel-held area in northern Syria.
"Good souls will not be humiliated", Mr Assad tweeted, while hundreds of Syrians gathered in Damascus, the capital, where they flashed victory signs and waved flags in scenes of defiance after the early morning barrage.
But White House spokeswoman Sarah Sanders insisted Sunday that the strike was a success.